Sore throat.

A sore throat is pain, roughness or irritation in the throat that often worsens when swallowing. The most common cause of a sore throat (pharyngitis) is a viral infection, such as a cold or the flu. Sore throats caused by a virus usually clear up on their own.

A less common type of strep throat (strep throat) that requires antibiotic treatment to prevent complications. There are other, less common causes of a sore throat that may require more complex treatment.

Symptoms.

Sore throat symptoms can vary depending on the cause. Signs and symptoms may include:

Soreness or a stinging sensation in the throat
Pain that gets worse with swallowing or talking
Difficulty swallowing
Inflamed and swollen glands in your neck or jaw
Swollen and red tonsils
White spots or pus on the tonsils
Hoarseness or a muffled voice
The infection that causes a sore throat may cause other signs and symptoms, including:

fever
cough
Runny nose
sneezing
body aches
headache
Nausea or vomiting
When do you visit the doctor?
See your child’s doctor if your child’s sore throat doesn’t go away with the first drink in the morning, according to the recommendations of the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Seek immediate care if your child has severe signs and symptoms, such as:

breathing difficulties
Difficulty swallowing
Unusual drooling, which in turn indicates an inability to swallow
If you’re an adult, see your doctor if you have a sore throat and any of the following related problems, according to the American Academy of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery:

body ache and sore throat

body ache and sore throat

Sore throat that is severe, or lasts longer than a week
Difficulty swallowing
breathing difficulties
Difficulty opening the mouth
Joint pain
ear pain
Skin rash
Fever over 101 F (38.3 C)
There is blood in your saliva or phlegm
Frequent throat infections
a lump in your neck
The hoarseness persists for more than two weeks
Swelling in your neck or head.

the reasons
Viruses that cause colds and influenza also cause sore throats. Rarely, bacterial infections cause strep throat.

viral infection
Viral diseases that cause sore throats include:

common cold
influenza (cold)
mononucleosis (increased white blood cell count)
Measles
chicken pox
Novel Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19)
Diphtheria – a common childhood illness characterized by a severe barking-like cough
bacterial infection
There are many bacterial infections that can cause a sore throat. The most common cause is Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus), which causes strep throat.

Other reasons
Other causes of a sore throat include:

Allergy. Sore throats can be caused by an allergy to pet dander, mold, dust and pollen. The problem may be compounded by a runny nose behind the nose, which can cause irritation and a sore throat.
Drought. Dry indoor air can make your throat feel sore and rattled. And breathing through the mouth, which often results from chronic nasal congestion, can cause a dry and sore throat.
Irritants. Outdoor and indoor air pollution, caused by the presence of tobacco smoke or chemicals, can cause chronic sore throats. Chewing tobacco, alcoholic beverages and spicy foods can also irritate your throat.
Muscular stress. You can strain your throat muscles from screaming, talking loudly, or talking for long periods of time without rest.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a disorder of the digestive system. With it, stomach acids back up into the food tube (esophagus).

Other signs or symptoms include: heartburn, hoarseness, regurgitation of stomach contents, and a feeling of a lump in the throat.

HIV infection. Sometimes a sore throat and flu-like symptoms develop early after a person becomes infected with HIV.

In addition, a person with HIV can have a chronic or recurring sore throat due to a fungal infection called oral thrush or a viral infection called cytomegalovirus (CMV), which can be dangerous in people with weak in the immune system.

neoplasms; Cancers of the throat, tongue or larynx can cause a sore throat. Other signs or symptoms include: hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, noisy breathing, a swollen neck, and blood in saliva or phlegm.
Rarely, an infected area of ​​tissue (abscess) in the throat or a small swelling of the cartilage “lid” that covers the windpipe (epiglot) can cause a sore throat. All of the above can cause an airway obstruction, which can make the condition a medical emergency.


risk factors
Although anyone can get a sore throat, some factors increase the likelihood of developing it, including:

Age. Children and teens are more likely to get sore throats. Children ages 3-15 are more likely to develop strep throat, the most common bacterial infection associated with strep throat.
Exposure to cigarette smoke. Direct smoking and secondhand smoke can irritate the throat. Consumption of tobacco products also increases the risk of developing cancers of the mouth, throat and larynx.
Allergy. Seasonal or persistent allergies and allergic reactions to dust, mold or pet dander all increase the risk of strep throat.
Exposure to chemical irritants. Air particles from burning fossil fuels and common household chemicals can irritate the throat.
Chronic or recurrent sinus infections. Nasal pus may irritate the throat or spread the infection.
narrow places. Viral and bacterial infections spread easily anywhere people congregate, whether in child care centers, classrooms, offices or planes.
Weakened immunity. If your immunity is weak, you are generally more susceptible to infection. Common causes of weak immunity include HIV, diabetes, treatment with steroids or chemotherapy drugs, stress, fatigue and poor diet.
protection
The best way to prevent a sore throat is to avoid the germs that cause it and practice good hygiene habits. Follow these tips and teach your child to imitate them:

Wash your hands often and well for at least 20 seconds, especially after using the toilet, before and after eating, and after sneezing or coughing.
Avoid touching your face. Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth as much as possible.
Avoid sharing cups or utensils of food and drink.
Cough or sneeze into a tissue and dispose of it immediately, then wash your hands. When necessary, you can sneeze into one of your elbows.
Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer as an alternative to hand washing if soap and water are not available.
Avoid touching public phones or touching public drinking water taps with your mouth.
Always clean and disinfect phones, door handles, light switches, remote controls and computer keyboards. When traveling, clean phones, light switches, and remote controls in your hotel room.
Avoid close contact with sick people or those who show symptoms of close contact.