Nausea and vomiting are among the most common medical complaints, although the symptoms are limited to the digestive system, but they may be the result of a malfunction in other organs as well, as follows:
Nausea: Defined as a physical expression of the need to vomit that is centered in the larynx or in the upper abdomen.
Vomiting: defined as a specific physical event of rapid and forceful emptying of stomach content.
Retching: The repetitive contraction of the abdominal muscles that causes the stomach to empty.
Esophageal regurgitation: is the rise of food from the stomach in a possible quantity and frequency and expelled out of the mouth.
A distinction is made between vomiting in different cases, including:
Dangerous conditions such as intestinal obstruction, pleurisy, or perforation of an organ in the digestive system.
Cases that require the patient to be hospitalized for treatment as a result of severe vomiting that causes dehydration or an imbalance of salts in the blood.
Chronic cases require diagnosis in order to choose the appropriate treatment.
Causes and risk factors for nausea and vomiting
Causes of nausea and vomiting include:
1. Side effects of a specific drug
Treatments for which nausea and vomiting are side effects include:
Chemotherapy for cancerous tumors.
Medications for inflammatory bowel diseases.
2. Inflammatory diseases
These include acute gastroenteritis, and middle ear infections.
3. Gastrointestinal diseases
Include the following:
Acute inflammation of the cyst of the gallbladder and pancreas.
ischemia of the intestinal wall;
Metastasis of the intestinal mucosa.
Nausea and vomiting treatment
Mild vomiting can be treated without the need for medical treatment.
1. Home treatment
Home treatment aims to introduce as much fluid as possible into the body while avoiding further disturbances in the work of the abdomen. Treatment includes:
Drink clear liquids such as water and juices.
The use of sucking on ice cubes if other treatments with liquids have not been effective.
Avoid drinking a lot of fluids at once and avoid eating solid foods.
When the situation improves, you can try to eat soup.
Dairy products may make the situation worse as a gradual return to normal feeding, lollipops in general are a good solution for children.
2. Drug therapy
There are two main groups of drugs, which are antiemetics and stimulants, including the following:
Include the following:
Anticholinergic drugs: They are used for treatment in a limited way because of the many side effects that they cause and because of their low efficacy. It is only used for movement related diseases.
Drugs that block histamine receptors: effective in treating migraines, in particular, and in movement diseases that result from an action on the balance center in the inner ear. It has a central anti-emetic effect.
Phenothiazines: substances with anti-emetic properties. It acts on different receptors in the brain. It is effective in treating migraine, basically.
Butyrophenones: Known as a treatment for mental illness. There are few attempts to use it in the treatment of migraine.
Serotonin-3 receptor antagonists: These drugs are particularly effective as anti-emetic therapy following chemotherapy, as well as for migraines.
Dopamine receptor 2 antagonists: have an effect on the central nervous system, which is the control center for vomiting in the brainstem and peripheral nervous system.
Cannabinoids: marijuana mimics. Reports regarding the effect of these substances are few and not proven.
Corticosteroids: They are used only in emergency situations to treat brain edema.
Benzodiazepines: They help treat sleep disorders and anxiety. These drugs work by inhibiting the reticular activating system responsible for nervous alertness.
Motion stimulators are primarily effective in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease and gastroesophageal reflux disease, and include:
Serotonin 4 agonists: This family of drugs stimulates muscle action throughout the digestive tract. Muscle action generally affects the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from the nerve terminals.
Macrolide antibiotics: Stimulate gastric emptying by secreting motilin from the duodenum.
3. Surgical treatment
There are also surgeries that include:
Connect the stomach to the small intestine.
Prevention of nausea and vomiting
Prevention methods include the following:
Drink clear or iced drinks.
Eat light foods such as crackers or plain bread.
Avoid fried, greasy, or sweet foods.
Eat slowly and eat small, frequent meals.
Do not mix hot and cold foods.
Drink the drinks slowly.
Avoid activity after eating.
Many diseases and infections can cause stomach pain and chills. These can include colds, gastroenteritis, urinary tract infections, and prostatitis.
Stomach pain can vary in sensation and may lead to cramping or a burning sensation. The pain may also radiate to the back or to other parts of the body, according to medicalnewstoday.
Abdominal pain can also vary in duration and intensity. The pain may be either intermittent or constant. Symptoms can appear suddenly or get progressively worse.
People with stomach pain and chills usually have a bacterial or viral infection. Such infections can cause inflammation and irritation of the digestive or urinary tracts.
Common causes of stomach pain and chills:
Inflammation of the stomach and intestines
Viral gastroenteritis, which some doctors call stomach flu, is the most common form. Other causes include reactions to food or medications.
3. Salmonella infection
People usually become infected by ingesting contaminated food or water.
4. Urinary tract infection
A urinary tract infection (UTI) occurs when bacteria or other microbes infect the urinary tract. Females are more likely to have a UTI than males.
Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland, which is located below the bladder in males.
7. White blood cell count
Infectious mononucleosis, or the kissing disease or mono, is transmitted between people through saliva and leads to stomach pain and chills.
Pneumonia is an infection of the lung that causes inflammation of the alveoli.
Gallstones are the most common cause of cholecystitis, and if left untreated, cholecystitis can cause severe complications.
10. Pelvic inflammatory disease
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) occurs when sexually transmitted bacteria, including chlamydia or gonorrhea, spread to the fallopian tubes, uterus, or ovaries