Herbal medicine, herbal medicine, or phytotherapy is a subject in botany and involves the use of something intended for medicinal purposes or as a dietary supplement. Plants have been the basis of medicinal treatment since prehistoric times, and herbal medicine or herbal medicine is still widely practiced today. [1] Modern medicine makes use of medicinal compounds. For example, the typical phase of the typical form for purity or for doses. Seed, seed, seed, seed, fungal products, as well as minerals and shells, certain parts of animals.

Medicinal herbs are useful for treating cold and cough diseases.

Clinical tests edit
In a 2010 survey of the 1000 most popular plant-derived compounds, there were 156 clinical studies published.[23] Preclinical studies (cell culture and animal studies) were reported for about half of the plant products, while 120 (12%) of plants evaluated – Although it is available in western market – There have been no rigorous studies of their properties, and five studies were toxic or allergens, the result of which led the authors to conclude “that their use should be discouraged or prohibited.”[23]

Nine plants that have been evaluated in humans in clinical research include Medicinal Seal (Marshmallow), Calendal of Officinalis (Marigold), Centella asiatica, Echinacea, Passionflower, Pomegranate (pomegranate), Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), bilberry, and valerian, although with inconsistent results, mostly negative, studies were of low quality.[23]

In 2015, the Australian Government’s Department of Health published the results of a review of alternative therapies seeking to determine whether any of them are suitable for coverage by health insurance; The herbalist was one of 17 subjects evaluated and no clear evidence of its efficacy was found.[24] Developing guidelines for evaluating the safety and efficacy of herbal products, the European Medicines Agency provides criteria for assessing and grading the quality of clinical research in the preparation of studies on herbal products.[25] In the United States, the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health of the National Institutes of Health funds clinical trials of herbal compounds, provides fact sheets evaluating the safety, potential efficacy, and side effects of many plant sources, [26] and maintains a registry of clinical research conducted on herbal products. 27] According to Cancer Research UK, “there is currently no strong evidence from studies in people that herbal remedies can treat, prevent or cure cancer.”[28]

Spread of use edit
The use of herbal remedies is more prevalent in patients with chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, asthma and end stage renal disease.[29][30][31] It has also been shown that several factors such as gender, age, race, education, and social class are associated with the prevalence of the use of herbal remedies.[32] A survey released in May 2004 by the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health focused on who has used complementary and alternative medicines (CAM), what they have been used for, and why they have been used. The survey was restricted to adults, aged 18 years and over during 2002, living in the United States. According to this survey, herbal therapy, or the use of natural products other than vitamin S and minerals, was the most popular CAM treatment (18.9%) when all use of prayer was excluded.[33][34] Herbal remedies are very common in Europe. In Germany, herbal medicine is dispensed by the pharmacist (eg, Apotheke). Prescription medications are sold alongside essential oils, herbal extracts, or herbal teas. Some consider herbal remedies to be the preferred treatment for synthetically produced pure medicinal compounds.[35]

In India, herbal treatment was so popular that the Government of India established a separate department – Ayush – under the auspices of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. The National Council of Medicinal Plants was established in the year 2000 by the Indian government in order to deal with the herbal medicinal system.[36]

Herbal preparations edit
There are many forms in which herbs can be administered, the most common being a liquid form that the patient drinks – either an herbal tea or a plant extract (possibly diluted).[37] Several standardization methods may be to determine the amount of herbs to be used. One is the ratio of raw materials to solvents. However different samples of the same plant species may differ even in chemical content. For this reason, farmers sometimes use a thin chromatographic layer to assess the content of their produce before use. Another method is standardization on a chemical reference.

Herbal teas, or tisanes, are liquids resulting from extracting herbs into water, although they are made in a few different ways. Infusions are hot water extracts of herbs, such as German chamomile or peppermint, through steeping. Decoctions are long-lived boiled extracts, usually from more difficult substances such as roots or bark. Maceration is the ancient infusion of plants with a high mucilage content – eg, sage, thyme, etc. They are chopped and added to cold water. Then they are left for 7 to 12 hours (depending on the herbs used). For most macerates it uses 10 hours.[39]

Tincture s alcoholic extracts from herbs, which are generally stronger than garlic to.[40] Tinctures are usually obtained by combining 100% pure ethanol (or a mixture of 100% ethanol with water) with the herb. The completed tincture has an ethanol content of at least 25% (sometimes up to 90%). Herbal wines and elixirs are alcoholic extracts of herbs, usually with an ethanol content of extracts that include liquid extracts, dry extracts, and mist plants. Liquid extracts are liquids with a lower ethanol content than tinctures. The tinctures are usually manufactured by vacuum distillation. Dry extracts are extracts of plant material that are steamed into a dry mass. It can then be refined into a capsule or tablet. The exact composition of an herbal product is influenced by the method of extraction. Tea will be rich in a polar component because water is a polar solvent. Oil on the other hand is a non-polar solvent and will absorb non-polar compounds. Alcohol falls somewhere in between.