Pain can be felt in the body through two main mechanisms, the first is the pain we feel when there is damage to a particular organ or tissue, such as after receiving a blow, or exposure to a burn, wound or pressure on the body, and this type of pain It’s called a nociceptive.

The second type is pain from a nerve source, or from neuropathy, which appears as a result of an injury to one of the organs of the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, or peripheral nerves. It is often long-term and causes persistent, persistent pain.

Sensory nerves transmit sensory information from all parts of the body to the brain, where it is processed and given its proper meaning. Each type of peripheral nerve transmits a different type of sensation including light touch, deep touch, pain, temperature, and organ location relative to body and space. the broadest.

Neuralgia often results from damage to the nerves that transmit pain or temperature.

Neuropathic pain symptoms
Neuralgia differs from normal pain in that it appears after a long time of nerve damage, and it often lasts for a long time and does not go away without treatment. In contrast, the pain caused by a wound appears immediately after the injury and disappears in the stages of wound healing.

The feeling of neuralgia is subjective and individual, as each person feels neuralgia differently. There are those who feel that the pain appears and disappears, and there are those who feel that the pain is continuous and does not change, and in addition to the pain, the following symptoms may appear:

Allodynia, which is the feeling of pain from stimuli that are not supposed to cause pain, such as: wind or cloth.
The pain feels like burning or an electrical burn.
The pain feels like cutting or stabbing.
Hyperalgesia, as a stimulus that usually causes a feeling of potential pain, such as a tingling during blood tests, may cause terrible pains that are unbearable here.
Tingling or numbness and tingling sensation in the affected organ.
Loss of sensation in any of the nerve functions, such as: loss of sensation of heat, which may cause burns, and loss of sensation in the location of the extremities, which causes difficulties in walking.
Causes and risk factors for neuralgia
The exact mechanism through which neuralgia is formed is not clear, but it is likely that the nerve after an injury returns to work in a different way than it did before the injury, sending false signals to the brain that are reflected in the generation of pain sensations.

In some cases, the pain is congenital, but it is often acquired at some stage of life, although the true cause of the sensation of pain is not always known and clear. Among these causes may be:

1. The main causes of neuralgia
The main causes of neuralgia are:

Chronic alcohol consumption.
Vitamin deficiency.
exposure to metals.
Exposure to toxic substances.
Take medications.
Autoimmune diseases.
2. Some diseases
Neuralgia appears as part of the symptoms in the following diseases:

Diabetes
Diabetics, especially those who do not keep their blood sugar levels in balance, develop neurological disorders in the palms of the hands and feet due to the damage to the blood supply to the nerves.

These disorders can cause pain, numbness, tingling or tingling.

Post-herpetic neuralgia
Varicella zoster virus causes chickenpox in children and herpes zoster in adults.

In herpes zoster disease, blisters appear on the skin accompanied by pain and burning, usually on only one side of the body in a specific area in a belt-like manner, and nerve pain often persists after shingles for a long time, and this situation appears mainly in adults.

Trigeminal neuralgia
The most common neuralgia syndrome in the facial area is characterized by the appearance of sudden, severe pain in the face that lasts for several seconds. In people who suffer from this condition, there is an area in the face where any stimulus, no matter how slight, can cause pain.

Neuralgia complications
People with chronic nerve pain may have:

sleep deprivation
mood disturbances;
Capturing an infection without knowing its cause.
Neuropathic pain diagnosis
There are no specific special tests that can diagnose pain from a nerve source, so all other factors that may cause pain must be excluded and excluded, including exposure to injury, infections, autoimmune diseases, tumors, or others.

The clarification process includes a physical examination to ascertain the presence or absence of other diseases that can cause pain in general, or pain from a nervous source, and the duration of the pain and its characteristics, and factors that would alleviate, or increase the severity of the pain must be taken into account in order to Achieving a final diagnosis.

Neuropathic pain treatment
Treating neuralgia is a complex task and requires the use of medications that are not usually used to treat pain, and finding the appropriate treatment for each case separately due to the different cases from each other requires a lot of time, as well as choosing the most useful and effective treatment alternatives, including:

1. Oral drug therapy
Among the most prominent drug treatments used are the following:

Anticonvulsants
These medications are commonly used in patients with epilepsy and other convulsive conditions, but these medications are effective and successful in treating certain types of nerve pain.

Antidepressants
These medications directly relieve pain, improve sleep quality in people with chronic pain, and relieve pain-related depression.

Tricyclic medications, serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRI), or norepinephrine may also be used.

Opioids
These medicines are called narcotics, and they are the most effective medicines available today for treating pain in general, and there are also opioid medicines that are less powerful in terms of their effect and in terms of their side effects.

Of course, it is possible to use medicines intended to relieve normal and general aches, such as: NSAIDs and Paracetamol, although these medicines do not usually solve the problem permanently.

2. Topical treatment
The treatment is given by patches, gel, or ointment, and contains a compound of a local anesthetic that relieves pain.

3. Injection therapy
Among the most important treatments used are the following:

Nerve block
In this treatment, a special substance is injected directly into the nerve, which stops the transmission and flow of nerve signals, which leads to the cessation of pain, and in this way, any sensation that comes from this nerve may be damaged.

Direct treatment to the spinal cord
This treatment is done by inserting a needle into the spinal cord through which medication is injected using a pump into the patient.

4. Surgical Therapeutic
The most important surgical treatments used are:

Decompression of the nerve
In this treatment, pressure on the nerve is relieved in order to relieve pain.

Spinal Cord Stimulation or Peripheral Nerve Stimulation
In this treatment, a needle is inserted through which electrical stimulation is given to the nerve or spinal cord.

Electrical stimulation removes the sensation of pain transmitted by the affected nerve, and instead creates another sensation similar to a light squash.

Neuropathic pain prevention
Neuropathic pain can be prevented by:

Treating diseases that cause nerve pain, such as: diabetes.
Avoid exposure to toxins.
Limit the use of alcohol and cigarettes.
Minimize exposure to stress.