The dangers of high blood pressure: the effect of high blood pressure on the body
High blood pressure is a risk factor for more cases of heart disease. Find out what complications high blood pressure can cause.

High blood pressure (hypertension) can slowly damage your body over a period of years before you experience symptoms. Uncontrolled high blood pressure can lead to disability, poor quality of life, or even heart attack or stroke.

Treatment and lifestyle changes can help control high blood pressure to reduce the risk of life-threatening complications.

Here’s a look at the complications that uncontrolled high blood pressure can cause.

damage to your arteries
Healthy arteries are flexible, strong and soft. Its inner lining is smooth, so that blood flows freely, providing vital organs and tissues with nutrients and oxygen.

High blood pressure gradually increases the pressure in the blood flowing through your arteries. As a result, you may have:

Arterial damage and narrowing. High blood pressure can damage the cells of the inner lining of your arteries. When diet fats enter your bloodstream, they can collect in damaged arteries. Eventually, the wall of your artery becomes less flexible, limiting blood flow within your body.
mother of blood Over time, the constant pressure of blood traveling through a weakened artery can cause its wall to split, expanding and forming a bump (aneurysm). The cerebral aneurysm may rupture, causing life-threatening internal bleeding. An aneurysm can form in any artery, but it’s most common in the largest artery in your body (the aorta).
heart damage
High blood pressure can cause many problems for your heart, including:

Coronary artery disease. Arteries that have been damaged and narrowed by high blood pressure find it difficult to supply blood to your heart. When blood can’t flow to your heart, you may have chest pain (angina), a heart attack or an irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia).
Left heart hypertrophy. High blood pressure forces your heart to work too hard in order to pump blood to the rest of your body. This causes part of your heart (the left ventricle) to enlarge. Left atrial hypertrophy increases the risk of heart attack, heart failure and sudden cardiac death.
heart failure Over time, the heart strain from high blood pressure can cause the heart muscle to weaken and work less efficiently. Eventually, your heavy heart begins to fail. The damage caused by heart attacks increases this problem.
brain damage
Your brain depends on a nourishing blood supply to function properly. But high blood pressure can cause some problems, including the following:

Transient ischemic attack (TIA). Sometimes called a mini-stroke, a TIA is a brief, temporary disruption of the blood supply to your brain. Atherosclerosis or blood clots from high blood pressure can cause a TIA. A TIA is often a warning that you’re at risk of having a full-blown stroke.
Apoplexy. A stroke occurs when part of your brain is deprived of oxygen and nutrients, which causes brain cells to die. Blood vessels damaged by high blood pressure can narrow, rupture, or leak blood. High blood pressure can also cause blood clots to form in the arteries to your brain, blocking blood flow and potentially causing a stroke.
dementia; Narrowed or blocked arteries may reduce blood flow to the brain, resulting in a specific type of dementia (vascular dementia). A stroke that affects blood flow to the brain may also cause vascular dementia.
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This condition is a transitional stage between the changes in understanding and memory that generally come with aging and the more serious problems caused by dementia. Studies show that high blood pressure can lead to mild mental disability.
Kidney damage
The kidneys filter excess fluid and waste products from the blood, a process that requires healthy blood vessels. High blood pressure can damage the blood vessels and lead to the kidneys. Having diabetes with high blood pressure further exacerbates the damage.

Kidney problems caused by high blood pressure include:

Kidney scarring (glomerulosclerosis). This type of kidney damage occurs when the tiny blood vessels inside your kidneys become underdeveloped and are unable to filter fluids and waste products from your blood effectively. Glomerulosclerosis may lead to kidney failure.
Kidney failure. High blood pressure is one of the most common causes of kidney failure. Damaged blood vessels prevent your kidneys from effectively filtering waste products from your blood, allowing levels of fluid and hazardous waste to build up. Eventually, dialysis or a kidney transplant may be required.
eye damage
High blood pressure can damage the delicate, delicate blood vessels that supply blood to your eyes, causing:

Damage to the retina (retinopathy). Damage to the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (the retina) can lead to bleeding in the eye, blurred vision and complete vision loss. You are at greater risk if you have diabetes in addition to high blood pressure.
Accumulation of fluid under the retina (choroidopathy). Choroidopathy can result in distorted vision or sometimes scarring that impairs vision.
Nerve damage (optic neuropathy). The blocked blood flow can damage the optic nerve, leading to bleeding inside your eye or vision loss.
sexual dysfunction
The inability to get and maintain an erection (erectile dysfunction) becomes increasingly common in men by age 50. But men with high blood pressure are more likely to experience erectile dysfunction. Limited blood flow caused by high blood pressure can block blood flow to your penis.

Women can also experience impotence as a result of high blood pressure. Reduced blood flow to the vagina can lead to decreased sexual desire or excitement, vaginal dryness, and difficulty reaching orgasm.

Emergency high blood pressure
High blood pressure is usually a chronic condition that causes damage gradually over the years. But sometimes blood pressure rises so quickly and so severely that it becomes a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment, often in the hospital.

In these cases, high blood pressure may cause:

Memory loss, personality changes, trouble concentrating, easy agitation or progressive loss of consciousness
Severe damage to your body’s main artery (aortic dissection)
chest pain
Heart attack
sudden weak heartbeat; Causes fluid to build up in the lungs, causing shortness of breath (pulmonary edema)
Sudden loss of kidney function
Pregnancy complications (pre-eclampsia or eclampsia)