Sore throat causes and risk factors
Sore throats may be caused by several factors, and it appears as a primary symptom in many difficult diseases related to the upper respiratory tract and esophagitis. The causes of the disease and the associated risk factors are:

1. The most important causes of sore throat
A sore throat may result from:

Viruses
Doctors believe that viruses are the primary factor responsible for the majority of sore throats.

As it is known, there is no drug to treat viral sore throat, with this statistics indicate that 60% of infected people may receive antibiotic treatment, although a large part of them will not be effective and will not affect the course of the disease.

bacteria
The most common bacteria that can cause a sore throat are Streptococcus and Arcanobacterium haemolyticum, especially in adolescents, sometimes associated with a mild red rash.

tonsillitis
The tonsils are located in the back of the pharynx, and when this area is infected with a virus or germ, it becomes raging, and the tonsils swell larger than their normal size, accompanied by a sore throat, heat, and swallowing difficulties.

different treatments
Sore throats in certain cases may be caused by treatment with antibiotics, chemotherapy, or any drug that affects the immune system.

A sore throat that lasts more than two weeks alternately may indicate the presence of a chronic illness.

2. Sore throat risk factors
There are several factors that may be behind a sore throat, including the following:

smoking.
Breathing polluted air.
Breathing dry air through the mouth.
Various allergens include dust.

Sore throat complications
Among the most important complications that may occur when symptoms of a sore throat worsen are:

Epiglottitis.
Abscess around the tonsils.
Inflammation of the submandibular space.
Posterior pharyngeal compartment inflammation.
The emergence of the first symptoms of AIDS.
Rheumatic fever.
Sore throat diagnosis
In some cases, it is not possible to definitively differentiate between a viral sore throat and a bacterial sore throat based on clinical symptoms only, and then a throat swab must be taken and analyzed to find out the cause.

Sore throat treatment
Sore throat is recovered automatically without medical intervention after the disease has taken its time. If the sore throat is accompanied by a high temperature, it is preferable to review and intervene by the doctor, and the treatment is in the following ways:

1. Treating sore throat symptoms
Sore throat treatment comes with the aim of relieving symptoms of the disease from pain, difficulty in swallowing, headache, high temperature and others, so the preferred treatment for sore throat is:

Gargling with hot, salty water: helps sterilize the affected area.
Use of sucking tablets to relieve pain: The process of sucking tablets increases the concentration of saliva in the mouth, and helps moisturize the painful area.
Steamer: Use of this device may relieve symptoms, especially in cases of sore throat caused by dry air and breathing through the mouth.
Spray: These sprays moisten the mouth and contain pain relievers.
Taking medications: Oral pain relief.
In some difficult cases, in which the sick person has not responded to any of the previously described treatments and still has problems and difficulty swallowing, doctors prescribe the possibility of treatment with glucocorticoids, which will help the patient overcome the difficulty of the symptoms of the disease.

2. Treating sore throat with home methods
You can use the following household ingredients that may help you relieve and treat a sore throat:

Lemon: It helps to get rid of the mucus stuck in the throat area. You can take fresh lemon juice with honey.
Apple cider vinegar: It has antibacterial properties that help get rid of sore throats.
Cinnamon: Cinnamon has been used since ancient times to treat sore throats caused by the common cold.
Garlic: It has antiseptic and antibacterial properties that help treat a sore throat. Eat a raw garlic clove once a day.
Honey: It has antibacterial properties that fight the cause of sore throats. Add it to a cup of tea or lemon juice.
[video|236|Reduce the pain of a sore throat in simple ways

Sore throat prevention
Ways to prevent a sore throat:

Maintain good hand washing.
Sitting away from infected people.
Drink plenty of fluids.
Eat healthy.

Symptoms
Tonsillitis mostly affects young preschool children as well as young adolescents. Signs and symptoms of tonsillitis include:

Red and swollen tonsils
A white or yellow coating or macules develop on the tonsils
Sore throat
Difficulty or pain when swallowing
fever
Enlarged lymph nodes in the neck
Rattle or muffled sound or hoarseness
bad breath
Collywobbles
Neck pain or stiffness
headache
Indications for tonsillitis in young children who are unable to describe what they are feeling may include:

Drooling due to difficulty swallowing or pain when swallowing
refusal of food
unusual irritation
When should you visit a doctor?
It is important to get an accurate diagnosis if your child has symptoms that may indicate tonsillitis.

Call your doctor if your child has:

Sore throat with fever
Sore throat that does not go away within 24 to 48 hours
Difficulty or pain in swallowing
Extreme weakness, fatigue, or irritability
Seek immediate care if your child has any of the following signs:

breathing difficulties
Difficulty swallowing
excessive drooling.

the reasons
Tonsillitis is often caused by common viruses, but a bacterial infection may also be the cause.

The most common type of bacteria that causes tonsillitis is Streptococcus pyogenes, the bacteria that causes strep throat. Other strains of streptococcus bacteria or other types of bacteria can also cause tonsillitis.

Why do tonsils get infected?
The tonsils are the immune system’s first line of defense against bacteria and viruses that enter the mouth. This function may make the tonsils particularly vulnerable to infection and inflammation. However, the immune system function of the tonsils decreases after puberty – which may be why cases of tonsillitis in adults are so rare.

risk factors
Risk factors for tonsillitis include:

young age. Tonsillitis affects children. Tonsillitis caused by bacteria is most common in children between the ages of 5 and 15.
Repeated exposure to germs. School-age children tend to be in close contact with their peers and are often exposed to viruses or bacteria that can cause tonsillitis.
Complications
Inflammation or swelling of the tonsils from recurrent or persistent (chronic) tonsillitis can cause complications such as:

Difficulty breathing during sleep (obstructive sleep apnea).
Infection that spreads deep into surrounding tissue (peritonsillar cellulitis)
An infection that causes pus to collect behind the tonsil (peritonsillar abscess)
streptococcal infection
If tonsillitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes or other strains of streptococcus bacteria is not treated, or if antibiotic treatment is not completed, your child will have an increased risk of developing rare disorders such as:

Rheumatic fever, a serious inflammatory condition that can affect the heart, joints, nervous system and skin
Complications of scarlet fever, a streptococcal infection characterized by a prominent rash
Nephritis (poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis)
Post-streptococcal reactive arthritis, a condition that causes inflammation of the joints.

protection
The germs that cause viral and bacterial tonsillitis are contagious. Therefore, the best prevention method is to adhere to good hygiene practices. You can teach your children to:

Wash their hands well and often, especially after using the bathroom and before eating
Avoid sharing food, drinking glasses, water bottles, or utensils
Replacing a toothbrush after being diagnosed with tonsillitis
To help your child prevent spreading viral or bacterial infections to others:

Keep your child at home when he is sick
Ask your doctor when is the right time for your child to go back to school
Teach your child to use a tissue to cover his mouth every time he sneezes or coughs, or if necessary, to use his elbow
Teach your child to wash his hands well after sneezing or coughing.