Nausea and vomiting in adults
According to Norton J. Greenberger, MD, Brigham

Nausea is the unpleasant feeling of needing to vomit. People may also feel dizziness, vague abdominal discomfort, and an unwillingness to eat.

Vomiting is a violent contraction of the stomach that pushes its contents up the esophagus and out through the mouth. Vomiting empties the stomach and often makes sick people feel at least temporarily better. The vomiting is bothersome and may be violent. Severe vomiting can throw stomach contents up several feet (projectile vomiting). Vomiting differs from reflux, which is regurgitation of stomach contents without violent abdominal cramps or nausea. For example, people with achalasia or Zenker’s diverticulum may regurgitate undigested food without feeling sick (see Throat Thrust Disorders).

body ache vomiting fever and headache are symptoms of

body ache vomiting fever and headache are symptoms of

Vomiting (emetic substance) – the substances being vomited – the food recently eaten is usually refluxed. Sometimes it contains bits of food. The emetic is usually red when vomiting blood (hematemesis), but if the blood is partially digested, the emetic looks like coffee granules. The presence of bile in the emetic substance makes it bitter in taste and greenish-yellow in color.

Inhalation of emetic (aspiration)
Esophageal rupture (Mallory-Weiss rupture)
Dehydration and electrolyte imbalance
Undernutrition and weight loss
It can help people who are completely or partially unconscious by inhaling the substance. It leads to an increase in the number.

Vomiting greatly increases the pressure inside the esophagus, and severe vomiting may rupture the lining of the esophagus (see Esophageal rupture). A small tear causes pain and sometimes bleeding.

They are found to lose this week (electrolytes) through vomiting, it may cause severe vomiting and imbalance in electrolyte levels. Newborns and infants are more likely to develop these complications.

Vomiting leads to nutritional and weight loss, and metabolic abnormalities.


the reasons
Nausea and vomiting are caused by activation of the vomiting center in the brain. Causes include disorders of the digestive system, the brain, or usually the substances ingested.

Common causes
The most common causes of nausea and vomiting are:

Gastroenteritis (infection of the digestive system)
pharmaceutical
Toxins
Nausea and vomiting are caused by any malfunction of the digestive system but are especially common when gastroenteritis usually occurs. Intestinal obstruction is one of the least common intestinal disorders, as it causes vomiting as food and liquids return to the stomach due to the blockage. Many other abdominal disorders that lead to vomiting also cause severe abdominal pain. When such disorders occur (for example, appendicitis or pancreatitis), people usually seek medical care because they feel pain rather than vomiting.

Many drugs, including alcohol, opioid painkillers (such as morphine), and chemotherapy drugs can cause nausea and vomiting. Toxins, such as lead or those in some foods and plants, can also cause severe nausea and vomiting.

Less common causes
Less common causes of nausea and vomiting include:

Disorders of the brain or central nervous system
motion sickness
Metabolic changes or whole-body disease (systemic)
mental disorders
cyclic vomiting syndrome
The vomiting center can also be alerted by certain disorders of the brain or central nervous system, including infections (such as meningitis and encephalitis), migraines, and disorders that increase pressure inside the skull (intracranial pressure). Disorders that increase intracranial pressure include tumors, brain hemorrhages, and severe head injuries.

There is a connection between the balance organs in the inner ear (vestibular system) and the vomiting center. This contact is why some people feel nauseous from the movement of a boat, car, or plane, and from certain disorders of the inner ear (such as labyrinthitis and positional vertigo).

Nausea and vomiting may also occur when there are metabolic changes in the body, such as in early pregnancy, severe uncontrolled diabetes, or severe liver or kidney failure.

Psychological problems can also cause nausea and vomiting (known as functional or psychogenic vomiting) as well. This vomiting may be intentional. For example, people with bulimia nervosa may induce vomiting to lose weight. Or it may be unintentional. For example, children who are afraid to go to school vomit in response to psychological stress.

Cyclic vomiting syndrome is an uncommon disorder in which people have severe attacks of vomiting (or sometimes only nausea) at varying intervals. Between attacks, people feel normal. This syndrome sometimes persists into adulthood, although it usually begins during childhood. Periodic vomiting that begins in adulthood is often caused by chronic marijuana use.


Evaluation
It is not necessary to seek immediate medical evaluation for each episode of nausea and vomiting. The following information can help people decide whether to see a doctor and what to expect during the evaluation.

Warning signs
Some symptoms and features are cause for concern. They include the following:

Signs of dehydration (such as thirst, dry mouth, little or no urination, feeling weak and tired)
Headache, stiff neck, confusion, or decreased alertness
Constant abdominal pain
Feeling of pain when touching the stomach
dilation (swelling) of the abdomen
When should you see a doctor?
People who develop warning signs, vomit blood, or have a recent head injury should see a doctor right away.

People who have nausea and vomiting without warning signs should see a doctor if the vomiting continues for more than 24 to 48 hours or if they are unable to tolerate more than a few sips of liquid. People who have had a few episodes of vomiting (with or without diarrhea) but who are able to tolerate drinking little fluids should call their doctor. Depending on their age, other symptoms, and known health conditions (such as cancer or diabetes), doctors may want to see people for their condition or stay at home and try simple treatments.

When should you see a doctor?
People who develop warning signs, vomit blood, or have a recent head injury should see a doctor right away.

People who have nausea and vomiting without warning signs should see a doctor if the vomiting continues for more than 24 to 48 hours or if they are unable to tolerate more than a few sips of liquid. People who have had a few episodes of vomiting (with or without diarrhea) but who are able to tolerate drinking little fluids should call their doctor. Depending on their age, other symptoms, and known health conditions (such as cancer or diabetes), doctors may want to see people for their condition or stay at home and try simple treatments.

What will the doctor do?
Doctors first ask about the patient’s symptoms and medical history. Then the doctor performs a clinical examination. The information doctors get from the health history and physical examination often indicates the cause of vomiting and which tests may be needed. (See Table: Some Causes and Features of Nausea and Vomiting).

In their medical history, doctors ask whether the person is pregnant (the woman) or has diabetes, migraine headaches, migraines, liver or kidney disease, or cancer (including the timing of any chemotherapy or radiotherapy). All recently used drugs and substances should be recorded because the toxicity of some substances may not appear until several days after their use (such as acetaminophen and some types of breakfast).

During the physical examination, doctors check for:

Signs of dehydration (such as a fast heart rate, low blood pressure, and dry mouth)
Signs of a serious stomach disorder (such as flatulence or severe tenderness)
Decreased level of alertness or other neurological abnormalities that suggest a brain disorder.