Fever is an increase in body temperature above the normal level, so that the normal body temperature ranges around 37 degrees Celsius and indicates that the body’s immune system is defending due to the presence of disease or inflammation.A high temperature may occur without an apparent cause, and a fever without a cause (Fever of unknown origin -FUO) is defined as a rise in body temperature at least to 38.3 degrees Celsius and lasts for more than three weeks without an apparent cause.
Causes of high body temperature for no reason
There are several reasons for an unexplained high temperature, including:
Infection with bacterial diseases such as tuberculosis, endocarditis, sinusitis, bone inflammation, dental abscess, as well as abdominal abscess.
Infection with immune diseases such as lupus erythematosus, rheumatism, and inflammatory bowel diseases.
Tumors, especially blood cancers such as lymphoma and leukemia.
Some medications can cause heat for no reason, such as: pain medications, antirheumatics, epilepsy medications, sedatives, and some antibiotics.
Fever caused by cat scratches.
Types of fever that appear without a cause
Cases of high body temperature without a cause are divided into four main types, which are:
1. Classic or traditional
It occurs to people who do not suffer from chronic diseases, and who do not complain of signs of disease, so that it lasts for at least three weeks, and its causes include: the presence of inflammation, tumors, especially blood, including leukemia or diseases related to tissues and blood vessels.
2. Fever arising in hospital
It is what happens to patients in hospitals, so admission to the hospital is for a reason other than fever, and signs of high temperature appear while he is inside the hospital. The reasons are as follows:
Inflammation of the blood vessels.
Enterocolitis caused by a type of bacteria called Clostridium difficile.
Deep vein thrombosis.
Sinusitis caused by the use of the nasal tubes and trachea.
3. Fever caused by immunodeficiency
The fever in this case is known as a fever caused by a low white blood cell count, and it usually occurs in patients undergoing chemotherapy.
4. Fever associated with HIV infection
The AIDS virus itself raises the temperature, and because of its effect on the immune system, the patient is more susceptible to infection with various microbes.
Symptoms that accompany high fever
Fever accompanies some symptoms, the most important of which are chills, sweating and headache. The patient may also suffer from:
pain in the joints.
Pain in the throat.
Diagnosis of high temperature
The diagnosis is made first by taking information from the patient to try to determine the initial cause, so the doctor will ask you about: travel trips if you took them, any change in your surroundings, the presence of animals in your home or workplace, and about the family’s medical history in the event of genetic diseases, for example, Then the doctor will order the following tests:
1. Clinical examination and blood sampling
A comprehensive examination of the body is done, for example, an examination of the skin to ensure that there is no yellowing, pallor or rashes. If the results indicate a specific problem, doctors may resort to ordering other tests.
2. Sample cultivation
Blood, urine and saliva samples are cultured to detect the presence of bacteria and fungi.
In general, the appropriate image and its type are determined in the places of pain if it is accompanied by heat. For example, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used for the spine in the case of back pain, and computed tomography (CT scan) is used if there is a suspicion of the presence of the problem in the abdomen or chest. or pelvis.
Echocardiogram is used if the doctor hears any changes in the heartbeat, and positron emission tomography (PET) is used for the whole body.
high temperature treatment
In 50% of cases of fever without a cause, patients are discharged from the hospital without a specific cause and often spontaneous recovery.
In the event that doctors determine the cause of the fever, the cause is treated and thus lowering the temperature, and the patient can reduce the fever by following the following:
Wearing light clothes.
Drink cold liquids.
Take a shower with warm water.
Use of antipyretics such as acetaminophen and ibuprofen.