High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) affects people with diabetes. Several factors can contribute to hyperglycaemia in people with diabetes, including physical activity and food choices, medical conditions, non-diabetes medications, or not taking or skipping adequate doses of glucose-lowering medications.

It is important to treat hyperglycaemia, because if left untreated, it can become severe hyperglycaemia and lead to serious symptoms that require emergency care, such as a diabetic coma. Long-term hyperglycemia, even if not severe, can lead to complications affecting the eyes, kidneys, nerves and heart.

Symptoms
Hyperglycemia does not produce symptoms until glucose values ​​are very high — usually above 180 to 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 10 to 11.1 millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Symptoms of hyperglycaemia develop slowly over several days or weeks. The longer blood sugar levels remain high; Symptoms became more serious. However, some people with type 2 diabetes may not have any symptoms for a long time despite high blood sugar levels.

Early signs and symptoms
Recognizing the early signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia can help treat the condition right away. Watch out for the following:

frequent urination
extreme thirst
blurred vision
fatigue
headache
Symptoms and signs of disease
If left untreated, hyperglycemia can cause toxic acids (ketones) to build up in the blood and urine (ketoacidosis). Disease signs and symptoms include:

Fruity smell with exhalation
Nausea and vomiting
shortness of breath
Dry mouth
Weakness
confusion
coma
Abdominal pain
When should you see a doctor?
Please call the emergency number in your country or emergency medical assistance in the following cases:
If you are sick and cannot keep any foods or liquids in your stomach
If your blood glucose levels remain above 240 mg/dL (13.3 mmol/L) and you have ketones in your urine
Make an appointment with your doctor in the following cases:
If you have persistent diarrhea or vomiting, but are able to eat certain foods or drinks
If you have a fever that persists for more than 24 hours
If your blood glucose level exceeds 240 mg/dL (13.3 mmol/L) even though you are taking diabetes medication
If you have problems keeping your blood glucose level in the normal range.

the reasons
During digestion, your body breaks down carbohydrates in foods — such as bread, rice, and pasta — into different types of sugar molecules. One of these types of sugar molecules is glucose, which is one of the main sources of energy for the body. Glucose is absorbed directly into the bloodstream after eating, but it cannot enter the cells of most of your body’s tissues without the help of insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas.

When the level of glucose in your blood rises, your body sends signals to your pancreas to release insulin. Insulin opens the cells so that glucose can enter them and give them the energy they need to function properly. Any excess glucose is stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen.

This process reduces the amount of glucose in the bloodstream and prevents it from reaching dangerously high levels. As the blood sugar level returns to its normal state, insulin secretion from the pancreas decreases.

Diabetes greatly reduces the effect of insulin on your body. This may be because your pancreas is not able to produce insulin (type 1 diabetes), or it may be because your body is resistant to the effect of insulin or isn’t producing enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level (type 2 diabetes). As a result, glucose builds up in your bloodstream (hyperglycaemia) and may rise to dangerous levels if not treated appropriately. Insulin or other medications are used to lower blood sugar levels.

risk factors
Many factors can contribute to your hyperglycemia, including:

Not using enough insulin or oral diabetes medication
Not injecting insulin properly or using expired insulin
Not following your diabetes nutrition plan
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Having a disease or infection
Taking certain medications, such as steroids
Injury or surgery
Exposure to psychological stress, such as family disputes or challenges in the workplace
Illness or stress can cause hyperglycemia because the hormones produced to combat illness or stress can also make blood sugar rise. Even people without diabetes may develop transient hyperglycaemia while they are severely ill. But people with diabetes may need to take additional diabetes medications to keep blood glucose close to normal during illness or stress.

Complications
Long-term complications
Keeping your blood sugar in a healthy range may help prevent many complications associated with diabetes. Long-term complications of untreated hyperglycaemia can include:

Cardiovascular disease
Nerve damage (neuropathy)
Kidney damage (diabetic nephropathy) or kidney failure
Damage to the blood vessels of the retina (diabetic retinopathy), which can eventually lead to blindness
Clouding of a lens in the eye that is clear in its normal state (cataracts)
Feet problems caused by damaged nerves or poor blood flow that can lead to serious infections and ulcers of the skin, and in some severe cases may even lead to amputation
Bone and joint problems
Cases of inflammation of the teeth and gums
emergency complications
If your blood sugar rises too high or for a long time, it can lead to two serious conditions.

Diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis develops when there is not enough insulin in your body. When this happens, sugar (glucose) can’t get into cells to supply energy. Your blood sugar level increases and your body begins to break down fats for energy.

Thus, this process produces toxic oxides called ketones. Excess ketones build up in the blood and eventually “disseminate” in the urine. Untreated diabetic ketoacidosis can also lead to a diabetic coma and may be life-threatening.

A state of hyperosmolarity with hyperglycaemia. This condition occurs when the body produces insulin, but it is not used properly. Blood glucose levels may be very high, greater than 1,000 mg/dL (55.6 mmol/L). Because insulin is present but it doesn’t work properly; The body cannot use glucose or fat for energy.

The glucose then leaks into the urine, causing increased urination. Hyperosmolar hyperglycaemia can also lead to coma and potentially life-threatening dehydration. Urgent medical care must be provided immediately.

protection
The following suggestions can help keep your blood sugar within your target range:

Follow a diabetes meal plan. If you take insulin or oral diabetes medication, it’s important to be regular about the amount and timing of your meals and snacks. And the food you eat must be balanced with the insulin that is working in your body.
Monitor your blood sugar level. Depending on your treatment plan, you can monitor and record your blood sugar level several times a week or daily. Careful monitoring is the only way to ensure that your blood sugar level is maintained within the target range. Note when your glucose readings are above or below your goal range.
Take medications as directed by your doctor.
Adjust your medications if you change your physical activity. This degree of control depends on the results of the blood sugar test and on the type and duration of activity.