Dehydration occurs when you use or lose more fluid than you take in and there is not enough water or other fluids in your body to perform its normal functions. If you don’t replace lost fluids, you will become dehydrated.

Anyone is susceptible to dehydration, but the condition is only serious in young children and the elderly.

Acute diarrhea and vomiting are the most common causes of dehydration in young children. It’s normal for older adults to have less water in their bodies, and they may have medical conditions or take medications that make them more likely to become dehydrated.

This means that even minor illnesses, such as infections in the lungs or bladder, can lead to dehydration in older adults.

Dehydration can occur at any age if a person does not drink enough water during hot weather. Especially if the person does vigorous exercise.

You may be able to treat mild or moderate dehydration by drinking more fluids, but severe dehydration needs immediate medical treatment.

Symptoms
Thirst is not always an early indicator of the body’s need for water. Many people, especially older adults, don’t feel thirsty until they are actually dehydrated. Therefore, it is important to drink more water in hot weather, or when you are sick.

Signs and symptoms of dehydration may also vary according to age.

infants or young children
dry mouth and tongue
No tears when crying
Three hours of dry diapers
Two eyes and two cheeks
Atelectasis of the soft spot above the skull
Apathy or irritability
adults
extreme thirst
Decreased frequency of urination
dark urine
fatigue
dizziness
confusion
When do you visit the doctor?
Call your family doctor if you or someone you love has:

Diarrhea for 24 hours or more
Agitated, disoriented and more sleepy, or less active than usual
Inability to prevent vomiting fluid
Passing stools that are bloody or black in color.

the reasons
Sometimes dehydration is caused by simple causes: not drinking enough fluids due to illness or preoccupation, or due to lack of access to safe drinking water when traveling, hiking or camping.

Other causes of dehydration include:

diarrhea, vomiting; Acute acute diarrhoea, meaning diarrhea that comes out suddenly and with force, can lead to an extreme loss of water and electrolytes in a very short time. If vomiting occurs with diarrhea, the patient loses more fluids and minerals.
fever. In general, the higher the fever, the more dehydrated. The problem is exacerbated by fever, diarrhea and vomiting.
Excessive sweating. People lose water by sweating. If vigorous activity does not replace lost fluids while exercise continues, the person becomes dehydrated. Hot and humid weather also increases the amount of sweating and the amount of fluid loss.
Excessive urination. This may result from undiagnosed or untreated diabetes. Some medications, such as diuretics and some blood pressure medications, can also lead to dehydration, generally because they lead to excessive urination.

risk factors
Anyone can become dehydrated, but some people are more likely to:

infants and children. The group most likely to develop severe diarrhea and vomiting are infants and children, who are particularly vulnerable to dehydration. Because the surface of the stomach is higher than the size of the stomach in their case, they also lose a large proportion of fluid due to a high fever or burn. Young children usually can’t tell you that they’re thirsty and can’t get themselves water.
Elderly. As you get older, your body’s fluid stores become smaller, your ability to retain water decreases, and your thirst becomes less intense. These problems are exacerbated by chronic diseases such as diabetes and dementia and by the use of certain medications. Older adults may also develop mobility problems that reduce their ability to get water for themselves.
People with chronic diseases. Having uncontrolled or untreated diabetes puts you at a higher risk of dehydration. Kidney disease also increases your risk, as do medications that cause excessive urination. Even having a cold or a sore throat makes you more susceptible to dehydration because you likely won’t want to eat or drink anything when you’re sick.
People who work or exercise outside. When the weather is hot and humid, your risk of dehydration and heat illness increases. This is because when it’s humid, sweat can’t evaporate and cool you down as quickly as it normally does, and this can lead to a higher body temperature and a need for more fluids.

Complications
Dehydration can lead to serious complications, including:

thermal injury. If you don’t drink enough fluids when you exercise vigorously and sweat a lot, you can end up with a heat injury, ranging in severity from mild heat cramps to heat exhaustion or potentially life-threatening heat stroke.
Urinary and kidney problems. Prolonged or repeated episodes of dehydration can cause urinary tract infections, kidney stones, and even kidney failure.
seizures; Electrolytes — such as potassium and sodium — help carry electrical signals from one cell to another. If the electrolytes are out of balance, normal electrical messages may become mixed, which can lead to involuntary muscle contractions and sometimes loss of consciousness.
Hypovolemic shock (hypovolemic shock). This is one of the most serious and, sometimes, life-threatening complications of dehydration. It occurs when low blood pressure causes your blood pressure to drop and the amount of oxygen in your body to drop.

protection
To prevent dehydration, drink plenty of fluids and eat foods rich in water, such as fruits and vegetables. Making the feeling of thirst the ideal daily indicator is an appropriate guideline for healthy people.

People may need to drink more fluids if they have conditions such as the following:

vomiting or diarrhea; If the child has vomiting or diarrhoea, they should be given more water or an oral rehydration solution at the first signs of illness. It is not permissible to wait for drought to occur.
hard workouts In general, it’s ideal to start hydrating and hydrating before a hard workout. Also, passing a lot of clear, light urine is a good indicator of the quality of the body’s perfusion. During workouts, fluids can be taken at regular intervals and continue to drink water or other fluids after workouts.
hot or cold weather; People need to drink more water in hot or humid weather to help reduce body temperature and replace what is lost during sweating. A person may also need more water in cold weather to counteract moisture loss due to dry air, especially at higher altitudes.
the disease. In most cases, older adults become dehydrated from minor illnesses, such as influenza, bronchitis or a bladder infection. Be sure to drink more fluids when you are not feeling well.