• Before birth, the testicles are inside the abdominal cavity, and only at a later stage do the testicles move from the abdominal cavity to the scrotum, and even after the testicles move to the scrotum, they remain connected to the abdominal cavity through a tube called the spermatic cord, which contains: Important blood, nerves, lymphatic vessels, the spermatic cord, and in addition the testicle is attached to it inside the scrotum.

There is a corrugated tube attached to the wall of the testicle, called the epididymis. Its function is to store sperm and to ejaculate them when necessary, but what happens until a person develops testicular pain? The answer is as follows:

Testicular pain symptoms
Testicular pain itself is a symptom, which is accompanied by other symptoms that may indicate the cause of the pain. Also, it is important to distinguish between cases in which urgent treatment must be provided to the patient, and those in which the pain resolves on its own:

Where the sudden and non-gradual onset of pain may indicate a testicular torsion, while the gradual onset of pain in the epididymis area indicates inflammation of the epididymis.

Additional symptoms that may accompany testicular pain are:

Swelling, sensitivity and redness in the scrotum.
Nausea and vomiting.
Pain during urination.
Discharge from the penis.
Pain during sex or during ejaculation.
Presence of blood in the urine or semen.
Any testicular pain should be treated as an emergency; Therefore, you must go to the doctor immediately.

Causes and risk factors for testicular pain
There are many factors that can cause testicular pain. This is because the testicles are very sensitive to pain and even a mild injury may cause pain as the pain may begin in the testicle itself or in the epididymis.

Sometimes pain in the testicle can be the result of a problem outside the testicle, such as: certain hernias, or even as a result of the presence of kidney stones, which can cause this feeling.

The main reasons include the following:

1. Trauma
An injury to the testicle causes severe pain that appears immediately after the patient has been injured. The pain in most cases is transient as 85% of injuries are blunt injuries. The injury can cause an external wound in the scrotum, as well as swelling of the testicle or scrotum.

2. Testicular torsion
It occurs when the testicle is twisted inside the scrotum, in most cases spontaneously, and in a few of them due to injury. The torsion causes a disturbance in the blood flow in the blood vessels in the testicle, which may lead to testicular necrosis due to a lack of blood and oxygen.

Torsion can occur at any age, but in most cases it appears in the first months of life or at the age of 12-18, as most people who have suffered from testicular torsion have a congenital defect in the structure of the testicle that leads to the scrotum not connecting with the testicle.

3. Epididymitis
The most common cause of testicular pain in men after the age of 18 is usually caused by a sexually transmitted bacterial infection, such as Gonococcci or Chlamydia.

In young adults, it can result from a defect in the structure of the testicle, and in adults it can also be caused by an enlarged prostate gland.

4. Torsion of a testicular appendage
It is a common cause of testicular pain in males between the ages of 7-14 years, as this appendix is ​​the remnants of tissue, from the period when the testicle was in the abdominal cavity, and this appendix causes suffocation in the blood vessels that supply the testicle with blood as in the case of Testicular torsion.

5. Kidney stones
Kidney stones can cause pain that radiates to the testicles as the pain occurs outside the problem area.

Other symptoms that doctors may associate with kidney stones include:

Blood stained urine.
Burning sensation when urinating.
Pain in the upper part of the penis.
Sharp pain and cramping that may spread from the back to the groin.
frequent urination.
6. Other less common conditions
The following conditions may cause pain in the testicles, including:

A tumor in the testicles.
Abdominal infection or bleeding.
disappearance of the testicle;
Testicular pain complications
The most notable complications include the following:

Testicular torsion that is not treated in time, i.e. 6 hours before, can lead to necrosis and death of the testicular tissue, and epididymitis may lead to sepsis, and the tumor may send metastases and subsequently lead to death of the patient.
Untreated infections such as chlamydia can lead to permanent damage to the testicles and scrotum.
damage to fertility.
Testicular pain diagnosis
The examination focuses on the patient’s medical history and physical examination, especially examination of the abdomen, groin, penis, testicle and scrotum. The most important examinations include the following:

Laboratory tests: These include the following:
blood test.
Urine examination.
And culture of germs from the penis to detect sexually transmitted diseases.

Imaging tests: These include an ultrasound to detect a rupture, bleeding, abscess, testicular tumor, or epididymitis.
Testicular pain treatment
You should see a doctor, and the most important methods of treatment include the following:

1. Primary treatments
After an injury that did not cause damage to the testicle, it is possible to raise the testicle by immobilizing it. The following methods can be used:

Applying ice to cool the affected area and relieve pain.
Place a rolled-up towel under the scrotum if you are lying down.
Wear athletic support.
Take a warm bath.
2. Pain relievers
Acetaminophen or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including aspirin and ibuprofen, can help relieve pain.

They are often prescribed in cases of injury, trauma or orchitis.

3. Antibiotics
Orchitis or epididymitis caused by a bacterial infection should be treated with antibiotics or anti-infective drugs.

4. Antidepressants
Medications such as amitriptyline may be used to treat nerve pain.

5. Surgery
The treatment required in the case of testicular torsion is surgery by a specialist in the urinary tract. The doctor who treats the condition initially can try to correct the position of the testicle and return it to its proper position to stop the aggravation of the damage and relieve pain.

But in all cases, the torsion must be surgically corrected, and the testicle position must be examined in depth, and the testicle is fixed to the wall of the scrotum to prevent a recurrence of this phenomenon.

Prevention of testicular pain
The most important prevention methods include the following:

Use appropriate protective equipment when performing dangerous sports activities.
Use contraceptives when having sex.
Mumps vaccination.
Routine examinations for early detection of tumors.