Is it a Cold or Flu?
How do I know if I have the flu?
The CDC defines flu symptoms to include fever (temperature of 100.3 degrees F [38 degrees C] or greater, or signs of fever such as chills, sweats, flushing, skin feeling hot) with cough and/or sore throat. In addition, you may experience headache, body aches, fatigue, nasal congestion, vomiting and diarrhea. To help determine if you have a cold or flu, and for more advice, complete this brief, anonymous flu questionnaire.
Cold or flu? What to do?
In general, unless you are experiencing difficulty breathing, chest pain, persistent vomiting, severe diarrhea or instability related to dehydration, persistent fever more than 3-4 days, or have a high-risk condition, you should stay home and use self-care measures.
High risk conditions include:
lung diseases like asthma, cystic fibrosis, chronic bronchitis or emphysema
chronic kidney disease
metabolic diseases like diabetes
blood disorders like sickle cell or other severe anemia
a weakened immune system caused, for example, by cancer or cancer treatment, HIV/AIDS, organ transplant, or corticosteroid therapy
certain conditions such as nervous system or muscular disorders or seizure disorders that can cause breathing problems or increase the risk of inhaling oral secretions.
How to Care for Yourself
Medications used to treat the flu or a cold control symptoms. Antibiotics won’t work – they combat bacterial, not viral, infections. Viruses actually hide inside your own cells where antibiotics cannot affect them. Flu and cold care is aimed at symptom relief and immune system support. These include the following:
Get plenty of rest.
Do not smoke.
Drink plenty of fluids—up to 3-4 liters per day (to prevent dehydration from fever and to help loosen mucous or phlegm).
For fever, headache, body aches, or sore throat pain, take Tylenol (acetaminophen) Advil (ibuprofen), or Aleve (naproxen) every 4-6 hours.
For sore throat, gargle every 4 hours with warm, salty water (mix 1/2 teaspoon salt or baking soda in 8 oz. of warm water). Also, try using throat lozenges containing a numbing medication.
For hoarseness or laryngitis, talk as little as possible. Straining the voice can prolong or worsen laryngitis.
For heavy amounts of nasal discharge or a large amount of phlegm associated with cough, consider using a mucolytic, such as Mucinex (available over-the-counter).
For persistent runny nose or nasal congestion, antihistamines and decongestants may be used. Mild antihistamines such as Chlor-Trimeton are useful for runny nose, sneezing and watery eyes. Use a decongestant such as Sudafed (pseudophedrine) for nasal/sinus congestion or ear fullness. A combination antihistamine/decongestant such as Actifed or Dimetapp may be taken for multiple symptoms. But remember, antihistamines may make you drowsy (decongestants usually will not)!
Read this information for more guidance.
When to Seek Medical Care
Flu and colds may lead to secondary bacterial infections or worsening of chronic conditions such as asthma for which prescription medication would be necessary. You should seek medical attention if you are not improving after 7-10 days or for any of the following symptoms:
Very sore throat that shows no signs of improving after 3 days, or that is accompanied by fever and without any other usual cold symptoms
Painful swelling of the lymph nodes or glands in the neck
Discolored mucus from nasal passages for more than 7-10 days
Pain or tenderness around the eyes
Ear pain (as opposed to a “full” feeling)
Cough with production of a large amount of discolored mucus
Painful breathing, wheezing or shortness of breath
Cough that persists more than 2-3 weeks
Severe headaches or facial pain not relieved with over-the-counter medication
Fever higher than 100.4 degrees for more than 3-4 days
Who can I talk to if I need more advice?
If you are ill and need additional advice you may call the SHS Urgent Care nurse at (858) 534-3302. After hours, you can reach an advice nurse by calling our main phone (858) 534-3300 and choosing the “Advice Nurse” option.